The Time To Live (TTL) value in an IPv4 packet determines the maximum number of links or hops on which an IPv4 packet is allowed to travel before being discarded. The default TTL value in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista is set to 128. While the defaults are good enough and may never need changing, there may be instances where you may want to change the default TTL.
Gratuitous ARP is a feature of Address Resolution Protocol in which a Gratuitous ARP request is sent by a host for its own IP Address while initiliazing. Gratuitous ARP requests are sent to ensure that the IPv4 address is not already in use on the locally attached subnet.
In Windows 2008 & Windows Vista, we can control the number of Gratuitous ARP requests sent and is set to “3″ by default. To modify the number of Gratuitous ARP entries sent (between 0 and 3)
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Windows XP and later provides you with a one step resolution to network problems on your PCs and Servers in the form of a Repair button under the properties of the network connection. This is a simple and effective way to resolve a network problem but do you know what exactly happens when you run this command?
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Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) in simple words is the maximum IP packet size in bytes, that can be transmitted over the underlying network. While most of time this never has to be changed from the default values there are instances when you need to alter the MTU sizes to fix certain network performance issues. A best and classic example would be with a Windows Exchange Server being accessed over an Internet VPN setup. This in most of the cases demonstrate the problem with MTUs and related issues.