Feb 242008
 


Windows Vista delivers an impressive line up of network tools that can be used to keep the operating system connectivity on a short leash.Users will be able not only to closely monitor the networking activity of the platform, but also repair network connections. The utilities are not new to Windows Vista, having survived in the operating system from previous Windows versions.


1. getmac – this tool will enable you to display the MAC addresses for network adapters on a system. The Media Access Control (MAC) address for the network card can be accessed both on the local computer and on a network.

Syntax

getmac[.exe] [/s Computer [/u Domain\User [/p Password]]] [/fo {TABLE|LIST|CSV}] [/nh] [/v]

Examples

he following examples show how you can use the getmac command:

getmac /fo table /nh /v
getmac /s srvmain
getmac /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln
getmac /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln /p p@ssW23
getmac /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln /p p@ssW23 /fo list /v
getmac /s srvmain /u maindom\hiropln /p p@ssW23 /fo table /nh

2. hostname – not sure about what the name of your machine is on the network.Just type hostname and hit enter.

Syntax

hostname

Examples

To display the name of the computer, type

hostname

3. ipconfig – according to Microsoft’s own description, the tool is designed to display by default only the IP address, subnet mask and gateway for each adapter associated with the TCP/IP. But in addition to enumerating the TCP/IP network configuration parameters users can also refresh the DHCP and DNS settings.

Syntax

ipconfig [/all] [/renew [Adapter]] [/release [Adapter]] [/flushdns] [/displaydns] [/registerdns] [/showclassid Adapter] [/setclassid Adapter [ClassID]]

Examples

To display the basic TCP/IP configuration for all adapters, type:

ipconfig

To display the full TCP/IP configuration for all adapters, type:

ipconfig /all

To renew a DHCP-assigned IP address configuration for only the Local Area Connection adapter, type:

ipconfig /renew “Local Area Connection”

To flush the DNS resolver cache when troubleshooting DNS name resolution problems, type:

ipconfig /flushdns

To display the DHCP class ID for all adapters with names that start with Local, type:

ipconfig /showclassid Local*

To set the DHCP class ID for the Local Area Connection adapter to TEST, type:

ipconfig /setclassid “Local Area Connection” TEST

4. nslookup – is meant to be used according to Domain Name System.

5. net – is a general tool with commands covering a broad range of functionality.

6. netstat – displays protocol statistics and TCP/IP network connections.

Syntax

netstat [-a] [-e] [-n] [-o] [-p Protocol] [-r] [-s] [Interval]

Examples

To display both the Ethernet statistics and the statistics for all protocols, type the following command:

netstat -e -s

To display the statistics for only the TCP and UDP protocols, type the following command:

netstat -s -p tcp udp

To display active TCP connections and the process IDs every 5 seconds, type the following command:

nbtstat -o 5

To display active TCP connections and the process IDs using numerical form, type the following command:

nbtstat -n -o

7. netsh – the command-line tool enables Vista users to both view and alter the network configuration settings of computers.

8. pathping – is a middle solution which bundles the functionality delivered by traceroute and ping.

Syntax

pathping [-n] [-h MaximumHops] [-g HostList] [-p Period] [-q NumQueries [-w Timeout] [-T] [-R] [TargetName]

Examples

The following example shows pathping command output:

D:\>pathping -n corp1

9. nbtstat – a tool that will display protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NetBIOS over TCP/IP.

Syntax

nbtstat [-a RemoteName] [-A IPAddress] [-c] [-n] [-r] [-R] [-RR] [-s] [-S] [Interval]

Examples

To display the NetBIOS name table of the remote computer with the NetBIOS computer name of CORP07, type:

nbtstat -a CORP07

To display the NetBIOS name table of the remote computer assigned the IP address of 10.0.0.99, type:

nbtstat -A 10.0.0.99

To display the NetBIOS name table of the local computer, type:

nbtstat -n

To display the contents of the local computer NetBIOS name cache, type:

nbtstat -c

To purge the NetBIOS name cache and reload the #PRE-tagged entries in the local Lmhosts file, type:

nbtstat -R

To release the NetBIOS names registered with the WINS server and re-register them, type:

nbtstat -RR

To display NetBIOS session statistics by IP address every five seconds, type:

nbtstat -S 5

10. Ping – Verifies IP-level connectivity to another TCP/IP computer by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages. The receipt of corresponding Echo Reply messages are displayed, along with round-trip times. Ping is the primary TCP/IP command used to troubleshoot connectivity, reachability, and name resolution.

Syntax

ping [-t] [-a] [-n Count] [-l Size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r Count] [-s Count] [{-j HostList | -k HostList}] [-w Timeout] [TargetName]

Examples

The following example shows ping command output:

C:\>ping example.microsoft.com

Pinging example.microsoft.com [192.168.239.132] with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.239.132: bytes=32 time=101ms TTL=124

Reply from 192.168.239.132: bytes=32 time=100ms TTL=124

Reply from 192.168.239.132: bytes=32 time=120ms TTL=124

Reply from 192.168.239.132: bytes=32 time=120ms TTL=124

To ping the destination 10.0.99.221 and resolve 10.0.99.221 to its host name, type:

ping -a 10.0.99.221

To ping the destination 10.0.99.221 with 10 Echo Request messages, each of which has a Data field of 1000 bytes, type:

ping -n 10 -l 1000 10.0.99.221

To ping the destination 10.0.99.221 and record the route for 4 hops, type:

ping -r 4 10.0.99.221

To ping the destination 10.0.99.221 and specify the loose source route of 10.12.0.1-10.29.3.1-10.1.44.1, type:

ping -j 10.12.0.1 10.29.3.1 10.1.44.1 10.0.99.221

11. route – manipulates network routing tables.

Syntax

route [-f] [-p] [Command [Destination] [mask Netmask] [Gateway] [metric Metric]] [if Interface]]

Examples

To display the entire contents of the IP routing table, type:

route print

To display the routes in the IP routing table that begin with 10., type:

route print 10.*

To add a default route with the default gateway address of 192.168.12.1, type:

route add 0.0.0.0 mask 0.0.0.0 192.168.12.1

To add a route to the destination 10.41.0.0 with the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 and the next hop address of 10.27.0.1, type:

route add 10.41.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 10.27.0.1

To add a persistent route to the destination 10.41.0.0 with the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 and the next hop address of 10.27.0.1, type:

route -p add 10.41.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 10.27.0.1

To add a route to the destination 10.41.0.0 with the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0, the next hop address of 10.27.0.1, and the cost metric of 7, type:

route add 10.41.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 10.27.0.1 metric 7

To add a route to the destination 10.41.0.0 with the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0, the next hop address of 10.27.0.1, and using the interface index 0×3, type:

route add 10.41.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 10.27.0.1 if 0×3

To delete the route to the destination 10.41.0.0 with the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0, type:

route delete 10.41.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0

To delete all routes in the IP routing table that begin with 10., type:

route delete 10.*

To change the next hop address of the route with the destination of 10.41.0.0 and the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 from 10.27.0.1 to 10.27.0.25, type:

route change 10.41.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 10.27.0.25

12. tracert – users can implement this command-line tool to identify connectivity problems between the local computer and a network address.

Syntax

tracert [-d] [-h MaximumHops] [-j HostList] [-w Timeout] [TargetName]

Examples

To trace the path to the host named corp7.microsoft.com, type:

tracert corp7.microsoft.com

To trace the path to the host named corp7.microsoft.com and prevent the resolution of each IP address to its name, type:

tracert -d corp7.microsoft.com

To trace the path to the host named corp7.microsoft.com and use the loose source route 10.12.0.1-10.29.3.1-10.1.44.1, type:

tracert -j 10.12.0.1 10.29.3.1 10.1.44.1 corp7.microsoft.com

When using command-line tools in Windows Vista it is healthy to remember to launch the command prompt window with administrative privileges. In order to do so, enter “cmd” in the Search box under the Vista Start Menu and press Ctrl + Shift + Enter to launch the process with elevated privileges.

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